Coastal Waves, Surge and Inundation in the Gulf of Maine
Project Leads: Rick Luettich, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Robert Beardsley, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
CO-PIs: Joannes Westerink, University of Notre Dame; Changsheng Chen, University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth; Harry Wang, Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences; Will Perrie, Dalhousie University
Collaborators: Bash Toulany, Dalhousie University; Quichan Xu, University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth
Federal Partners: Jesse Feyen, NOAA-CSDL; Jamie Rhome, NOAA-NHC
Project Overview and Results
The goal of this project was to provide guidance on the behavior (e.g., accuracy, robustness, execution speed) and implementation requirements (e.g., resolution, parameterization, computer capacity) of models that are presently in operational use, or that are under consideration for such use, for computing waves, storm surge, and inundation. Models were evaluated for three extratropical storms (May 2005, April 2007, December 2010) and hurricane Bob (1991) in the Gulf of Maine. Skill assessment, sensitivity studies, and intramodel/intermodel comparisons provided a basis for defining model accuracy, implementation requirements, and computational performance. Studies in the Gulf of Maine were conducted at two scales, large-scale (Gulf of Maine/Northwest-Atlantic) and locally in and around Scituate Harbor, MA (using a one-way nested grid that obtained open boundary forcing from a large-scale model).
Hurricane Bob wave-current interaction and stratification
Description: The impacts of wave-current interaction and stratification on the Gulf of Maine coastal response to hurricane Bob were investigated. Wave-current interaction created variations in the surge elevation in both space and time, with the more significant effects occurring over the shelf and open coast rather than inside the inner bays. Sea level change along the coast was mainly driven by barotropic dynamics; the highest vertically integrated water transports were essentially the same for cases with and without vertical stratification. However, wave-current interaction generated strong vertical current shear in some of the stratified areas, leading to a strong offshore transport near the bottom and vertical turbulent mixing over the continental shelf. Stratification could also result in a significant difference in current velocities around islands where the water is not vertically well-mixed.
Publications: Yunfang Sun, Changsheng Chen, Robert C. Beardsley, Quichun Xu, Jianhua Qi, Huichan Lin, 2013. Impact of current-wave interaction on storm surge simulation: A case study for Hurricane Bob, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 118, 2685–2701, DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20207
Publications: Changsheng Chen, Robert C. Beardsley, Richard A Luettich Jr., Joannes J. Westerink, Harry Wang, Will Perrie, Qichun Xu, Aaron S. Donahue, Jianhua Qi, Huichan Lin, Liuzhi Zhao, Patrick C. Kerr, Yanqiu Meng, Bash Toulany, 2013. Extratropical storm inundation testbed: Inter-model comparisons in Scituate, Massachusetts, J Geophysical Research, Oceans, 118(10): 5054-5073, DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20397
Publications: Robert C. Beardsley, Changsheng Chen, Qichun Xu, 2013. Coastal flooding in Scituate (MA): A FVCOM study of the 27 December 2010 nor'easter, J Geophysical Research, Oceans, 118(110): 6030-6045, DOI: 10.1002/2013JC008862